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Support and rules

Economic support on agricultural land

The rural development program can provide financial support for seedlings and planting of Salix and Populus on farmland. Financial support can also be given for fencing to wildlife if needed. However, applications are processed by the county administrative boards and there may be regional restrictions on activities supported.

The investment must amount to at least 50 000 SEK in order to get support and up to 40% of eligible costs can be compensated. The cost is calculated based on templates:

• seedlings and planting, as well as additional expenses associated with the preparation of sites for production: 14 500 SEK per hectare

• fencing: 25 000 SEK per hectare

Regulations on forest land

The use of vegetative propagated plants for forest regeneration is regulated by the Swedish Forest Agency (Skogsstyrelsen) according to the Swedish Forestry Act (Skogsstyrelsens föreskrifter [SKS 2011:7] till 8 § skogsvårdsförordningen):

• At the maximum 5 % of the total area of productive forest land within a single estate (management unit) can be regenerated with vegetative propagated plant material, however at the most 20 hectares is always allowed.

• Forest regeneration with vegetative propagated plants must originate from a seed source approved by the Swedish Forest Agency.

• Planting of vegetative propagated material on an area covering 0.5 hectares or more must be notified to the Swedish Forest Agency at least six weeks before the planting starts. The notification should include a map of the location of the planting, and information of the estate, landowner and seed-source.

This means that forest owners with estates (management units) with at the maximum 20 hectares of productive forest land are allowed to use vegetative propagated plant material on all forest land (given the use of an approved seed source and notification to the Swedish Forest Agency), that forest owners with estates with an area of productive forest land between 20 and 400 hectares are allowed to use vegetative propagated plant material on at the most 20 hectares, and that owners of estates with more than 400 hectares of forest land can use 5 % of the area. In total, this gives a theoretical possible area in Sweden able to use for vegetative propagated forest plant material of ca 3.8 million hectares (Black-Samuelsson 2015). A very small part of this area is used for vegetative propagated plant material (and is not possible to use due to lack of plant material and shortage of suitable forest land), thus the Swedish Forest Agency consider the regulations simple and liberal.

The use of exotic species (hybrid aspen, poplars) is regulated in the Swedish Forestry Act (9 § skogsvårdsförordningen 1993:1096):

• Exotic species should be restricted to exceptional cases.

• Exotic species may not be used in montane forest (called “Fjällnära skog” defined according to Skogsstyrelsens författningssamling SKSFS 1991:3).

• Use of exotic species on an area of forest land larger than 0.5 hectares must be notified to the Swedish Forest Agency.

In addition to these regulations there are specific regulations regarding the use of Pinus contorta. In 2009, the Swedish Forest Agency presented an investigation with suggestions on extended regulations regarding the use of exotic species in Swedish forestry (Skogsstyrelsen 2009), but these suggestions have not yet resulted in changed legislation.

References

Black-Samuelsson, S. 2015. Vegetativt förökat skogsodlingsmaterial. Skogsstyrelsen Rapport 3-2015. (In Swedish) (http://shop.skogsstyrelsen.se/sv/publikationer/rapporter/vegativt-forokat-skogsodlingsmaterial.html)

Skogsstyrelsen 2009. Regler om användning av främmande trädslag. Skogsstyrelsen Meddelande 7-2009. (In Swedish) (http://shop.skogsstyrelsen.se/sv/publikationer/meddelanden/regler-om-anvandning-av-frammande-tradslag-meddelande-2009-7.html)